Operation Desert Storm – Causes And Consequences | The End of Free

Operation Desert Storm (the codename for the Gulf War) began from August 1991 and lasted till February 1991. It was a war fought by a coalition of 34 countries, led by the U.S. Army against Iraq in retaliation of their assault and invasion of Kuwait. This war is also referred by other names, including First Iraq War, Kuwait War, Gulf War I, First Gulf War, or Persian Gulf War. The operation preceded the invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi troupes. Iraqi’s invasion of Kuwait brought a lot of international condemnation, and economic sanctions were imposed on them by the United Nation’s Security Council.
President George Bush, then president of the United States deployed military troupes into Saudi Arabia and encouraged other nations to send in their troupes to the scene as well. Afterwards, some nations sent in their military support in aid of the war, and the major contributors alongside U.S. were Egypt, United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia.
The prime cause of the war that led to the operation was a landlocked dispute involving Iraq and Kuwait. Iraqi’s attempt to claim more territories on a land supposedly owned by Kuwait was rejected, prompting Iraq to engage in severe military battles to claim the land. There is an indication that Kuwait’s over production of oil against the requirements of OPEC also aggravated their disputes. Iraq began complaining about this behavior of not respecting their quota in July 1990. However, they decided to take action by deploying about 30,000 military troops to the Kuwait-Iraq border. This act did not augur well with several UN members, and they urged Iraq to cede the land and evacuate the border. However, Iraqi’s refusal and the subsequent invasion of Kuwait led to the intervention of the coalition forces.
An aerial bombardment aimed at expelling Iraqi soldiers from Kuwait began on January 1991. This was preceded by ground assault. With the combined strength of the coalition forces, Iraqi troupes were ousted from Kuwait territory. The firepower of the coalition forces was too much for the Iraqis and they ceased fire 3 months after the ground assault on them began. Kuwait was liberated and the coalition forces proceeded to Iraqi territories. This did not deter the Iraqi troupe as they went ahead to launch Scud missiles on Israel, Saudi Arabia, and other coalition forces. In April 1991, the UN Security Council passed a bill and initiated the terms for a cease fire between the aligned and coalition forces. The controversies surrounding the procedures for this cease fire later resulted to the outbreak of another war in 2003.
To find out more about the history of American foreign policy check out the book The War State by Michael Swanson.